Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives (MAIN)

Gagarina, Natalia, Klop, Daleen, Kunnari, Sari, Tantele, Koula, Välimaa, Taina, Balčiūnienė, Ingrida, Bohnacker, Ute & Walters, Joel. 2012 MAIN: Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives, ZAS Papers in Linguistics 56. Berlin: ZAS.


The Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives (MAIN) is designed to assess the narrative skills of children who are born or have grown up learning one or more languages. MAIN is suitable for children from 3 to 10 years of age and evaluates both understanding and production of narratives. Its design makes it possible to evaluate several languages in the same child, as well as different types of stimuli: model story, retelling and narration.

MAIN contains four parallel stories, each with a carefully designed six-image sequence. The stories are steered towards cognitive and linguistic complexity, parallelism in macro- and microstructure, and cultural appropriateness and robustness.

The instrument was developed on the basis of an extensive pilot study with more than 550 monolingual and bilingual children aged 3 to 10 years for 15 different languages and language combinations.

Although MAIN is not yet standardised, its standardised procedures can be used for evaluation, intervention and research purposes. MAIN is currently available in the following languages: English, Afrikaans, Albanian, Basque, Bulgarian, Croatian, Cyprus, Danish, Dutch, Estonian, Finnish, French, German, Greek, Hebrew, Icelandic, Italian, Lithuanian, Norwegian, Polish, Russian, Spanish, Standard Arabic, Swedish, Turkish, Vietnamese and Welsh.

If you want to use MAIN, you have to accept copyright and license agreements; after that you can download the materials in different languages.

→  Journal article: Here you can go to the Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives (MAIN).

→  Download: Here you can find the Copyright and License Agreement for the download